Mezzo - Soprano Brigitte
A Conversation with Bruce Duffie
As a member of an outstanding ensemble, Brigitte Fassbaender holds her
own among other lustrous colleagues in opera houses and concert halls
all over the world. She has made a particular name for herself in
several roles, as well as being a lieder
singer of the first rank.
Some of the details of her career can be found in the box at the bottom
of this webpage. Having known her artistry from recordings, when
she came to Chicago in 1988 I made it a point to arrange an interview.
Fassbaender was in the Windy City for performances at Lyric Opera of
Chicago in Salome with Maria
Ewing, James King, Siegmund Nimsgern
and Leonard Slatkin.
[Names which are links on this page refer to my interviews elsewhere on
my website.] Her English was quite good,
but as with so many who work in several languages, she uses the new
words in her native structure. Some of that structure has been
left in this
presentation, especially when it does not detract from understanding
I am always mindful of the needs and schedules of each of my guests, so
I made sure that she was well and had plenty of rest when setting an
appointment. While setting up the machine to record our
conversation, she mentioned that she had a lot going on and had
previously been on antibiotics so as not to miss any performances . . .
. . . .
Is the life
of a singer too tough?
Probably not too tough, but very tough. [Both laugh] Every
life and every serious profession is
rather tough, and I would say a singer’s life is rather hard, more than
one thinks, usually. It’s not the luxurious, wonderful
traveling life most imagine it to be. In fact, it is the
opposite. It’s hard work, and traveling is not so
nice all the time.
the public be aware of that, or
are they only concerned with the artistry that is on the stage during
BF: I think
they should only be concerned with the
artistry, what’s going on at night on stage. They should
believe in the wonder world. They should not know what’s going
sometimes they should realize that singers are not machines, not
working machines. They’re human beings with weakness and
indispositions, and with many, many feelings, also. One can have
headache or stomach pains, or someone is not always in best form.
BD: Is there
anything that you can
do to get around the little pains or being a little tired?
BF: There is
nothing. This is nothing you can
do. Like with every other normal person, you must jump over your
shadow every evening, actually. I want to be as much as possible
pleased with my work, and so
should the public. I want it, but I’m never content.
But I’m glad when the public is content sometimes.
BD: [With a
gentle nudge] Sometimes???
[Smiles] Mostly, I hope.
BD: Tell me
the joys and sorrows of being a
mezzo-soprano. You don’t have any latent desires to be a soprano?
No, no, no. I was always content
with that Fach, with all
these parts I could sing.
When I was a student I dreamt of Tosca and Fidelio, but I realized
very quickly that was not in my voice range. So I was very
what I could fulfill.
BD: Then it
is the range that completely dictates which roles you will sing?
Absolutely, I would say so. Some singers
are making experiments. I sang also Marie in Wozzeck. I
wouldn’t say that is an experiment since that is a part which is sung
often by mezzo-sopranos. But I never stepped out my real Fach, my real
parts. I’ve stayed in my limits, I hope.
within the mezzo-soprano range
there’s a whole long list of roles.
BD: How do
you decide which ones you’ll accept and
which ones you’ll put aside?
BF: I tried
always to stay with parts which I felt,
over the years, didn’t take away the flexibility of my voice.
Some years there was a danger that I should sing very
often Italian parts. There was a time when I sang Eboli and
Amneris, and I was very interested in that. But I
felt when I’m staying in that line and I’m singing that all the time,
you get so fixed in that style that you lose the ability to sing
lieder. I feel doing lieder is very cultivated, and
concert singing and lieder
interpretation is what I’m most interested in. So I
tried always to stay with these parts which fit to my voice totally,
without the strain in the voice too much over the years. That
keeps the voice as fresh as possible, as long as possible, to sing
these wonderful lieder
repertoire that we have in Germany.
BD: So you
are very careful about selecting roles and pacing them during each
BF: I made
them a very wide range. I didn’t
specialize, but in the years it crystalizes which parts are the
best. These were actually Mozart and Strauss. I was the
in Mozart and Strauss over the years.
BF: I sang
often Wagner. I sang the
Frickas, I sang Waltraute, and I am singing now Brangäne soon
again, but not all the time. I take two, three, four years rest
from these heavy parts, and
then do them again. I don’t do it permanently.
you’re also branching out into the French repertoire?
BF: I sang
only Chralotte in Werther.
It was with great, great pleasure,
I would say. Next to Octavian, is that my most famous, most
[Surprised] Really??? They seem like they’re such
opposites. Octavian is the young, brash boy...
in the tessitura of the voice, they
aren’t far apart. It’s the same tessitura. I love
Puccini, and Puccini has nothing written for mezzo-soprano. So
when I sang Charlotte, I always felt in these wonderful, bloomy,
blossoming phrases and lines like Puccini. I was very pleased
with the part and also the character. It was very
close to me, and I felt very well in it.
not a frustrated woman who’s trapped in a
poor marriage, are you?
BF: No, no,
not at all. I’m not that, but I
mean the emotions, the human being emotions, and full of life and
sadness. I like that.
Charlotte a strong woman?
BF: Yes, for
me she is. She’s very disciplined and very strong. She
suffers a lot. We made a wonderful film with Peter
Dvorský, who was my Werther. I liked that film. I
hope it comes out on
these video records.
BD: Do you
feel that opera works well
these productions are specially made for
film and tape, then they work well. Sometimes it’s very
fascinating, also, to have all these taken from stage directly, these
live productions, but actually you are right. Opera is
nothing for television. But I like to have done it, and I like it
that it’s preserved.
about audio recordings? Do you think that opera works well when
it is missing the
BF: I’m not a real
great record fan, no. I don’t like to
listen so often to opera records, but I like to do them. [Both
laugh] I like that work, the microphone work.
BD: Do you
sing differently for the microphone than
you do on stage?
The only difference is probably
that because there is no visual imagination for the listener, you have
to put in a hundred fifty percent of intensity
instead of hundred percent. You must be much more intense
working for the microphone because they don’t see you and
they don’t feel with you. They just have the pure vocal adventure.
BD: You feel
this intensity comes
BF: I hope
so, yes. That is also a
question of training and of experience over the years. I remember
when I made my first records, I was much too shy to give such a
lot. Then when I listened to them, when the technical staff
called me in to listen what we just did, I was always disappointed with
the result because it didn’t come through as I had felt while I’m
doing it because it was only for me and it was not enough.
So I must jump over that barrier and give more and more, and that
these operas or lieder
BF: Lieder and opera also, but in opera
probably easier because you have the colleagues and you have the
orchestra. Mostly it’s stuff you have sung often on stage, then
you bring in all these emotions. But with lieder it’s a difficult
thing for records, but I love it and I’m doing rather a lot in
the next years, which I’m very happy about. I just finished Winterreise, and the next project
is Schwanengesang and all
these great Schubert cycles. I’m doing
lots of stuff, and I’m very happy about that.
BD: Those are
cycles that women don’t
BF: We don’t
usually sing them, that’s right.
about who has recorded them...] Lotte Lehmann and Schwarzkopf,
and that’s about it.
BF: Yes, and
Schwarzkopf did not do
Winterreise, only Lehmann.
BD: Is there
any problem with a woman singing these
BF: No, I
don’t think so. I’d also sang
Dichterliebe, which is a
totally other field again, but for me it was
not at all a problem. I can’t explain it. It’s another
viewpoint of doing it, absolutely, but for the voice, purely for the
voice, it’s beautifully written for a woman’s
BD: Is it
more like an opera to sing a whole song
cycle than just groups of songs?
BF: I like it
if it’s a cycle or not. I try
to do mostly three composers, or better, only two composers in one
evening of a recital.
BD: One on
the first half and the other on the second half?
Yes. And I try to make my groups not like a
cycle, but to have a line in a dramaturgic way.
BD: A path?
BF: That is a
path, yes. For me, that’s the way
to do it. I don’t like these programs when you have two or three
songs from each composer. Anyway, there are not so many cycles,
but actually to sing a cycle,
it’s more fulfilling. It’s more adventurous to come through, but
it has nothing to do with an opera experience. It’s another kind
of experience, an inner experience. I always feel that a recital
is as difficult as an opera to sing vocally. It’s not easy.
BD: I would
think it actually to be more difficult
because you are it.
BF: One has
to be more
disciplined, and you are there the whole time. You never have a
pause. You can’t go to
your dressing room and wait until your next aria. You are really
your own producer.
BD: You and
BF: You and
the pianist, absolutely.
BD: Is it
difficult to find a pianist with whom you
absolutely. It’s very difficult.
You have to find one with the same wavelength and with the same
intuition on the fantasy. Your pianist must be a strong one, so
BD: Do you
get insight from the pianist?
Yes. I always like pianists when they are
really strong, when they are a strong personality. I have one,
Irwin Gage. He’s well known in America, too. In the
last years I’m working not only with him, but mostly with him. He
is a very strong person. We connect quite well
together. I have others also, young ones. I try to prepare
a young one and make that work because when you work a very
long time with somebody, there’s a danger of stagnation. So
sometimes you need somebody else to work out other things and to renew
used the word fantasy a couple of times. Is
this what music is, fantasy?
BF: This is
music is, but I think what an interpreter should bring to do
music. That’s the fascination of interpretation, to recreate it
time. It’s then totally yours.
BD: Is this
what makes any song or any piece of music
great — that you can sing it over and over again
and still find new
BF: I think
so, but that is only the case with good
music. [Both laugh] With the best music, that you don’t get
with it. There are some things in opera life and also lieder life that you could get
bored with over the
years. You fulfill it then totally and there is
nothing left. There is no corner left in which you haven’t
BD: Do you
sing some of these lesser songs, or do
you only sing the great songs?
BF: I try to
sing only really good
music. Probably that’s a little bit sophisticated, I don’t
know, but I can’t bring that over my lips sometimes. But
there are some good songs also with lighter music. I’m
doing lots of Mahler in the next years. All of what
Mahler has written for mezzo-soprano is being done for records. I
also do things by a strange, unknown composer,
probably totally unknown here in America, Karl Loewe. In Europe,
small part of what he has written is known. He’s a German
he is very famous for his ballades,
but he wrote a lot of lieder,
ones, and I made a lot of them. It was very interesting.
BD: Did you
purposely sing Erlking of
Erlking of Schubert together?
BF: No, I
didn’t. I didn’t sing the
ballade. Erlking is a ballade of Loewe. We tried to
that because it’s often sang by a man. But interestingly enough,
Loewe also wrote a whole
cycle, Frau Lieben und Leben,
what Schumann also did. We combined that for one record.
There is a
big difference between them. Loewe was the first; his was written
before Schumann, and it’s
very, very interesting. I’m looking forward to that record.
come back to your
operatic roles a little bit. Have you recorded Octavian?
BF: No, and
that will not be.
BF: First of
all, I have stopped
singing Octavian. I have been singing it now for twenty years and
think that’s enough. Not that I got bored with that part!
That part is so wonderful and the opera is so wonderful,
and actually there were very, very few evenings when I felt not in the
mood to do it. I was always engaged on stage with that
opera. But I felt now that probably I’m a little bit over the
time. I stopped singing it last year, actually. In the
summer I did my last performance in the
wonderful Munich production, where I created it and did the
premiere. I sang it all over the world, and I thought now that
people have enough of it from me, now the youngsters should sing
it. But there are other Strauss — the
nurse in Frau Ohne Schatten
and Clytemnestra and Herodias
and so on. There are more Strauss parts now coming.
wrote so well for the female voice?
that’s it. Wonderful!
BD: What is it that
he had for the female voice?
BF: I don’t
know. I don’t know what it
is. He wrote wonderful for the special tessitura. The
females have a
sound together; there’s a homogeneity which is so wonderful. This
unbelievable, what he did, and it’s such intelligent music. I
BD: You don’t
ever find it a problem to get over the
I don’t think it’s a
problem that the public doesn’t hear me for a moment. When the
orchestra is too loud for a couple of
minutes, so what? I don’t fear that. I never thought about
it that way. I think it’s awful when you have an evening with
a loud conductor the whole time, but there are some bits in operas
they have to be loud and the singer must just sing.
BD: Do you
know those sections are coming, and you hold back a bit?
BF: No, I
don’t. I don’t bang out and I don’t
hold back. I am not ambitious always to come over the
BD: Is there
any time that Salome or Elektra should
be done on the same bill with something else, or is that all that there
should be in the evening?
BF: You mean
because they are short
pieces? No. I think they are so strong they can’t be with
something else. They are really strong. That’s
enough for an evening, I think. I feel exhausted even with the
little Herodias, which is not a big part. When you are really
of emotion and tension on stage, in these two hours you are really
exhausted in the end. It has nothing to do with only the singing
production. It is very strong what’s going on, especially here in
the production which is wonderful. Maria Ewing is, for me, the
Salome in our time. I can’t imagine somebody
else now. It’s really great what she is doing.
BD: Did you
sing it with Anja Silja?
BF: Yes, but
not Herodias. That was in my first days, and I was the
page. It was years ago in Stuttgart. I have no
remembrance at all. I have no memory at all of it.
BD: You say
it’s exhausting to sing the
Herodias. Do you feel that even though you’re used to singing
Octavian, which is a lot
BF: Ja, ja. This has nothing to
do with it
because it has nothing to do with the singing, actually. It is
the emotions. You have to feel this Salome every moment,
and that’s it.
BD: Do you
sing differently from small houses to
BF: I think
so. I think the voice takes it. I always have
the feeling when I’m coming on a stage which is not familiar to me, as
if I take a measure. I look out and I measure it. I measure
the hall and the stage and make some noise which shows me how the
acoustic is. Then the voice makes an adjustment automatically.
BD: How are
the acoustics here in Chicago?
Wonderful. Wonderful! Really. Better than in Munich
even though it’s a little bigger
house. The acoustic is really wonderful. Always in these
old fashioned houses they knew how to build for singers.
Absolutely. The old opera houses and old concert halls are
always the best in the acoustic. The new ones they build
now are awful!
In opera, where is the balance between music and
BF: The best
operas are those where the drama is as strong as the music,
and the music is congenial to the work — like with Mozart operas to Da
Ponte texts, or the great Strauss-Hofmannsthal collaborations.
These have enormous,
wonderful books. The literature is so great in these
Or Wozzeck of
Büchner. All these pieces I love where the drama
of the actual literature is as great and artistic as the music.
In the Italian operas, you actually only concentrate on the music
and not on the words.
BD: Does that make
the Italian dramas weaker?
BF: No, not
weaker because what’s going on is usually criminal stories, and the
music is so wonderful and
great. I wouldn’t say weaker. They are
wonderful and strong, but the words are sometimes silly, and you can’t
going on. Can you explain Trovatore
to me? [Laughs] I sang
Azucena on the record, but I never totally understood what was going
on. It takes a long time, on the other hand,
to explain Figaro, to make it
totally clear what’s all going on in that opera. With all the
letters and the keys, it is very
BD: With Figaro there’s a line; with
Trovatore, it’s scene, scene,
that’s it. Ja, ja.
BD: [With a
gentle nudge] How can you sing a role when you don’t
understand the story?
BF: Oh, I
understand what’s going on with Azucena,
but I never understood what is really going on in the opera. I
can understand Azucena’s feelings with all
these burned babies, I mean! [Both laugh] That was just a
joke, but that’s it.
BD: But if
you don’t understand, how can the audience understand?
BF: Yes, but
here I like that
so much that they have these lines with the translation.
BD: Oh, the
BF: Yes, the
supertitles. I like that because
the reaction of the public is so wonderful! I remember when we
had Rosenkavalier in San
Francisco with supertitles, they laughed
such a lot! They laughed more and they got every little joke and
everything between the lines. You never have these wonderful
[Surprised] Even in Munich???
Not at all! They laugh about the real jokes, what they can
see, but they don’t take in all of what’s all going on. It’s
good, really helpful. I like it very much. They even
laugh in Salome where there
are some funny lines that are absolutely
meant to be funny. There are some cynical and ironical phrases
from Herod and
Herodias when they always have these little fights, and it’s
wonderful that they take that all in!
BD: You play
lots of wives and other kinds of not
particularly happy women.
Witches! Something like that is great. It’s
interesting to change so drastically your personality.
BD: Are there
any characters you play that are
perhaps a little too close to your own self?
BF: No, I
can’t say so. You can identify with
some feelings in every part, I would say, but I think that is the art
of art, that you have to change and you have to step into the moment
you are doing. But you are not that. You must not be like
Carmen or like Salome to be a good Carmen or a good Salome. You
just transpose it, translate it for yourself and take it in for a while.
BD: Are you
portraying the character or do you become that character temporarily?
BF: Half and
half, I think. I never know
exactly from where I start. I always notice that it’s enormously
important and very helpful for me to have the right feeling in the
costume and in the make-up. Both of those facets, costume and
make-up, change your personality by how you look in a part.
From that side, you take a lot into a part and how that person
moves on stage. The gestures must be specific
for that part, for that personality, for that character you have to
portray, but that has nothing to do with yourself. There is also
the enormous difference to concert
and lieder singing, where you
have to be totally yourself, and where
you have to identify with the feelings in what’s coming out from the
lied. There you have to
present your heart and your soul totally
to be believable. On stage, in an opera part, you have to present
the character from out of the circle of life which is just
going on in that evening.
BD: It sounds
like you have to put more into the lieder.
Yes. I would say for me it is especially
personal. I can only answer it
in a very subjective way. I always say for me it’s an
intellectual adventure to create a recital. It is also an
intellectual adventure to work into an opera part, but it is not so
fulfilling after a while, after some years. I think it has to do
with the life of a mezzo-soprano, where
there are not so many parts staying with you. You have to give up
some, but the literature of lieder
ends. But that doesn’t mean that I’m not fascinated and
interested anymore in opera. Not at all. I am
opposite. I am so fascinated by theater world, all in all, that I
have in mind that I will start to produce
a little bit. This doesn’t mean that I will stop singing totally,
but for example, I am doing a production of Rosenkavalier
next year in Munich. I’m not singing that role anymore, but I
have to watch it
now from the other side. I’m working with a totally new team
in the old production, which is a wonderful one by Otto Schenk.
Some of the singers have never sung these parts. I have a totally
new Ochs, Jan-Hendrik Rootering who just sang here in Chicago in Tannhäuser. It will be
first Ochs, and I have an American mezzo-soprano, Susan Quittmeyer
BD: Now when
you mold this Octavian, do
you mold her in Strauss-Hofmannsthal, or do you mold her in Fassbaender?
BF: No, I
hope not in Fassbaender. That
is not possible. She must be Susan
Quittmeyer’s Octavian, and I hope I will not come in danger
that I’m only concentrated on Octavian. I have to work with the
Marschallin and the Ochs and the Sophie as well.
BD: So to be
great, you have to be careful not to
over- or under-emphasize her?
Absolutely. But that’s my first
step in that world. Then I will make a production in a very
little house, in
the end of the world in Germany behind the forest, so to speak.
I’m doing Cenerentola, and
then I’m doing Lulu in a
little house in Austria.
BD: All three acts?
BF: I don’t
know. They want the two-act
version, but I want the three-act version, so we will see what comes
out. It’s a question of money for these little houses, and it is
a much bigger ensemble. The third-act version is
very expensive. I will start with that, and I’m
really fascinated by it.
they’re going to do Lulu in
would it be better to not do Lulu,
and do, say Wozzeck or
BF: I think
so, but I think they’ll stick to
it. I don’t know. I will see, and then I have to try to
make that compromise.
BD: I hope
there are not too many compromises in your
BF: Well, I
hope not. [Laughs] I hope there will not be. There weren’t
until now, and I don’t want them further.
BD: May I ask
you a little bit about your father?
BD: Tell me
about his voice and his performing.
BF: Oh, I loved his
voice. He was my teacher, and I
heard him rather often when I was a student and a schoolgirl. I
traveled where he sang, and in his last years I saw all
his famous parts including Rigoletto, Figaro in
Barbiere and Scarpia. He
was always the top, absolutely, but I didn’t know that. For me it
was great, and when he stopped singing
he was a wonderful teacher. I loved his voice enormously.
had a special brilliant sound. He was a real Italian
BD: When you
were growing up, did you know
immediately that you wanted to be a singer because he was a singer?
I wanted to be an actress, actually,
because my mother was an actress. It was rather late that I
discovered the voice. When I finished
school, suddenly it came out. I don’t know why. So, then I
found I could combine both these wishes of acting and singing in the
BD; Is there
acting also in lieder?
but it shouldn’t be outside. There is a
little bit, but not real acting.
BD: Does that
frustrate you at all?
BF: No, not
advice do you have for young singers coming
along who are aspiring to your kind of career?
with oneself and knowing the limits of your talent. You should
really do it only when
you have a real talent. Don’t start with that profession when
there is doubt of the vocal quality. It
is only pain and torture then. That profession
is only fulfilling when you can build on your strength, on your
talent. Things go quicker and
faster for the singers now. Agents are looking always for new
talents, and only the strong ones are making it. There’s no
reason to start — not to
speak about a career — when you do
not have a real
talent. Real talents are very rare.
the real talents always been somewhat
absolutely, but today they are more in
danger and even more rare. They get used and thrown away.
BD: They are
seen as being disposable?
BF: Ja, absolutely.
BD: Is there
no way that we can shake the agents
and managements to wake up?
BF: It’s a
total commercial, only to do with selling
and buying. You could shake probably the opera directors, but not
the agents. The directors are more
careful with young, good voices. Most young singers are
immediately. They sing much too heavy parts and too many nights.
BD: They need
to pace themselves?
BD: Thank you
for being a singer, and for having given us so much during your
distinguished career. Are you coming back to Chicago?
BF: I don’t
know. I don’t think there’s anything
planned in the next years at the moment. I would
love to. I like it here. I think it’s a very nice
house. It’s a wonderful atmosphere. The colleagues are very
nice, and the director,
Ardis Krainik is
wonderful with all the singers. The
whole staff is extremely nice, and I like it, really.
|The German mezzo-soprano,
Brigitte Fassbaender, is the daughter of screen actress Sabine Peters
and the celebrated German baritone, Willi Domgraf-Fassbaender.
Brigitte's first love was not music, but theatre. She
longed to become an actress like her mother, and it wasn’t until the
family settled in Nuremberg that she began to secretly experiment with
her voice. When she felt confident enough, she made a tape of arias and
lieder and sent them to
her father, who was then the head of the opera department at the
Nuremberg Conservatory. Domgraf-Fassbaender promptly took his daughter
on as a pupil, and she studied at the conservatory as a mezzo-soprano
from 1958 to 1961.
She made her debut in Munich as the Page in Wagner's Lohengrin, which led to other small
roles in various operas. Later in 1961, she made what she considers to
be her real debut, as Nicklausse in Offenbach’s Les Contes d'Hoffmann. During the
next twelve years, Fassbaender perfected her artistry, and in 1970 she
was given the honorary title of Kammerägerin.
In Munich, she appeared as Hänsel in Engelbert Humperdinck’s Hänsel and Gretel, Cherubino
in Mozart’s Le Nozze di Figaro,
Fatima in Weber’s Oberon, and
Narciso in George Frideric Handel’s Agrippina,
as well as Octavian in Strauss’ Der
Rosenkavalier, which she first sang in 1967.
Octavian launched her international career when she appeared at the
Royal Opera House (Covent Garden) in London in 1971 and at the
Metropolitan Opera in 1974. She sang Octavian for more than 20 years,
and then retired the role from her repertoire in 1988.
As her career took off, she began to add many new roles to her
repertoire. She has appeared as Clairon in Capriccio, the Composer in Ariadne auf Naxos, Fricka in Die Walküre, Carmen in Carmen, Orlovsky in Die Fledermaus, Amneris in Aïda, Maddalena in Rigoletto, and Eboli in Don Carlos. More recently, she
added the role of Klytemnestra in Strauss’ Elektra.
Brigitte Fassbaender has also been successful as a lieder singer. In 1987, she won a
Gramophone Award for her disc of songs by Franz Liszt and Richard
Strauss. She has also recorded Schubert’s song cycle Winterreise, as well as Johannes
Brahms’ Die Schöne Magelone
and Carl Loewe’s little-known Fraünliebe
Besides her vocal artistry, she has also done some producing
(stage-directing), and was Intendantin
(Managing Director) of the Tiroler Landestheater at Innsbruck. She is a
teacher of solo vocal music at the Musikhochschule in Munich, and a
fellow of Manchester’s Royal College of Music. In January 2011, the
French Government appointed her an honorary Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur.
© 1988 Bruce Duffie
This interview was recorded backstage at Lyric Opera of Chicago
on December 8, 1988. Portions
(along with recordings) were used on WNIB in 1988, twice in 1989, and
again in 1994 and
transcription was made and posted
website in 2013.
To see a full list (with links) of interviews which have been
transcribed and posted on this website, click here.
broadcaster Bruce Duffie was with WNIB, Classical 97 in Chicago
from 1975 until its final moment as a classical station in February of
2001. His interviews have also appeared in various magazines and
journals since 1980, and he now continues his broadcast series on WNUR-FM,
as well as on Contemporary Classical Internet Radio.
You are invited to visit his website
for more information about his work, including selected transcripts of
other interviews, plus a full list of his guests. He would also
to call your attention to the photos and information about his
grandfather, who was a pioneer in the automotive field more than a
century ago. You may also send him E-Mail
with comments, questions and suggestions.