Violinist / Violist Irving Ilmer
A Conversation with Bruce Duffie
Irving Ilmer, 78, a violinist, violist and teacher who played with
many prominent ensembles in North America, died Friday at home in Evanston.
September 13, 1919 in Vienna, Mr. Ilmer moved to Chicago's South Side
when he was in his teens. He made an early debut at the Civic Opera House
as an assistant artist with Metropolitan Opera star, Grace Moore. He was
a trombonist in the Army Air Corps band during World War II. Upon returning
to Chicago, Mr. Ilmer played violin with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra
for six years. He subsequently performed with many ensembles, including
the Fine Arts Quartet, the Contemporary Chamber Players at the University
of Chicago, and the resident quartet of the Aspen Music Festival in Colorado.
still living in the Chicago area, he taught at the University of Wisconsin
at Milwaukee, Northwestern University, and the Cleveland Institute of
Music. Between 1964 and 1976, Mr. Ilmer was a faculty member at Indiana
University School of Music and the University of Kentucky. He then spent
11 years as concertmaster of the Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony Orchestra in
Ilmer moved back to Evanston in 1987 and performed with the Governors State
University string quartet and the Chicago String Ensemble.
include his wife, Janet K. Schenk; two sons, Steven and Paul; and three
grandchildren. A memorial service will be held at 2 p.m. Jan. 17 in the
Second Unitarian Church, 656 W. Barry Ave., Chicago.
== Chicago Tribune, December 20, 1997 (slightly edited)
Like Richard Young
of the Vermeer Quartet, Irving Ilmer was a violinist who came to the viola
as a member of a significant string quartet. Both musicians kept the
violin handy, and also played the smaller instrument in other quartets.
Full disclosure... I knew Irving just a bit from my childhood. For
several years, he lived in the house next to mine in Evanston, Illinois (the
first suburb north of Chicago). Though not close, I did play games
and ride bicycles with his younger son, Paul, whose mother, Jacobeth, was
an elementary school music teacher. It wasn’t until many
years later that I discovered the full extent of Irving’s
Late in his life, Irving returned to Evanston, and in early April of 1989
we arranged to have an interview at his apartment. After using portions
of the chat on WNIB, Classical 97 a quartet of times, I am now pleased to
share the entire conversation on this webpage . . . . .
Bruce Duffie: You’ve been involved with music for
nearly fifty years.
Irving Ilmer: [With a wistful smile] Yes,
that’s hard to believe, really. I don’t know where the time goes.
All of a sudden, you look around and there is it, fifty years. It’s
like an abstract figure. Only when you start thinking about the various
parts of your life, and the various experiences, and the different places
you’ve lived that you realize it does take time. It’s almost like
BD: How has the music scene changed over fifty
Ilmer: When I was a youngster and got my first
jobs in orchestras, the talk was that strings were relatively scarce.
It was much easier to get a job in a major orchestra compared to
now. There’s no comparison. Now you have kids coming out of
the professional schools, and you have literally hundreds of applications
for one position in a major orchestra. It’s a very different situation.
BD: Did that situation in any way influence your
decision to take up violin instead of clarinet or trumpet?
Ilmer: No, no, no. The violin was pushed
at me from my father, who was a singer and a frustrated violinist. I
took to it quickly like a fish takes to water, and I had the coordination
BD: Did you originally want to be a solo concert
artist, or did you want to get into an orchestra?
Ilmer: I suppose some people do think about an
orchestra, and maybe they’re being realistic. But in most families,
when the little kid is talented and takes up an instrument, they think
immediately of the glamor of the concert career. I had a chance...
When I was fifteen, I auditioned for the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia,
and they said they were filled up on violin, but they’d take me on viola.
At fifteen I was not in any way interested in the viola. I didn’t
know much about it, so I turned it down, which was not very wise, but
I didn’t know. It’s hard to say.
BD: Obviously, it all worked out all right.
Ilmer: [Laughs] Yes, it did.
BD: So, what did you wind up doing? Where
did you get your education?
Ilmer: That was when we moved to Chicago from
Denver. I stayed in Chicago, and went to DePaul Music School, which
has a very different situation then from what it is now. The arts
and some of the other schools were in a high-rise building on Lake Street,
between Wabash and Michigan Avenue. The music and drama schools were
on the third and fourth floors, and I studied there with Richard Czerwonky
(1886-1949) who was a Joachim student from Germany.
Richard Rudolph Czerwonky (1886-1949) was a distinguished violinist,
composer and conductor of Polish-American ancestry. The majority of his
career was spent in Chicago where he became an influential figure in
the city’s classical music education and orchestra scene during the first
half of the twentieth century, especially during the 1930s and 1940s.
Born in Birnbaum, Germany (present-day Międzychód, Poland)
he was an accomplished violinist from an early age, having studied with
the great Austro-Hungarian violinist, conductor and composer Joseph Joachim
in his youth. After winning the Mendelssohn prize at age 18 and completing
an extensive European tour, he was debuted with the Berlin Philharmonic
Orchestra in 1906. He moved to the United States to become assistant concertmaster
of the Boston Symphony Orchestra later that year– a remarkable accomplishment
at not yet 20 years of age. In 1909, Czerwonky left Boston to become
concertmaster, assistant conductor and soloist with the Minneapolis
Symphony Orchestra– a position he held for nine years when he moved to
Chicago in 1918 to head the violin department and conduct the orchestra
of the new Bush Conservatory of Music.
He remained based in the Chicago area for the rest of his career,
eventually joining the faculty of DePaul University’s School of Music
and became head of the violin program in and conductor of the DePaul
Symphony Orchestra. In 1927 he reorganized the Chicago Philharmonic
Orchestra and conducted the ensemble for over twenty years– shepherding
the organization through the Great Depression. While heading the Chicago
Philharmonic, he developed their live WGN Chicago radio broadcasts and
led a series of popular concerts in Grant Park. The Chicago Philharmonic
was also featured in broadcasts airing on WMAQ and NBC, CBS, MBS and ABC
stations during his tenure. He also conducted the Kenosha (Wisconsin) Symphony.
Czerwonky was a promoter of women in classical music evidenced by
several actions during his time in Chicago. He assisted in the founding
of the Women’s Symphony Orchestra of Chicago in 1925 and served as conductor
for their first season (1925-1926) before resigning once the orchestra
was able to name Ethel Leginska (1886-1970) as the organization’s first
During Czerwonky’s tenure with the Chicago Philharmonic Orchestra,
the organization claimed to be the first professional orchestra in Chicago
to include both men and women in its ranks. Czerwonky was also known to
feature the works of women in his concert programming as well as the works
of local Chicago composers.
In addition to his teaching and conducting, he continued to perform
as a soloist and composed extensively for violin, piano and orchestra.
He performed as a soloist on his own works or other compositions with many
of the major orchestras in the United States and Germany in addition to
his own Chicago Philharmonic and the Richard Czerwonky String Quartet.
He was also frequently featured in performances broadcast on American and
German radio. He was a member of ASCAP and had numerous works published by
Carl Fischer and Oliver Ditson. Most of these published works are unfortunately
now out-of-print and many are rare.
After the four years I was ready to look around and see what I could
do on my own. At that time, an opportunity opened up for an assistant
artist for a Grace Moore program, which was a benefit at the Civic Opera
House. Through some personal connections. I had gotten to know
Harry Zelzer, and he obviously thought I was adequate to it. So, that
was more or less my professional public debut after my student years.
I was still a teenager, and it was a very glamorous affair for me. [Laughs]
I had borrowed the Leopold Auer Stradivarius, which was on sale
at the time at Lyon & Healy. They had a store in the Loop [downtown
Chicago] at that time with a big violin collection.
‘ex-Leopold Auer’ Stradivari, Cremona, 1690
The stunning ‘flame’ patterns that we see on the back of fine instruments
are an optical effect produced when the grain of maple grows in undulating
patterns. When planed, scraped or burnished and particularly under certain
types of varnish, the flame reflects light and appears to have an almost
holographic effect. When one holds a heavily-flamed violin in strong sunlight,
the figure can seem as if it’s alive and moving.
The way in which maple is cut and prepared determines the flame’s
appearance. The typical ‘tiger stripe’ flame pattern results when the
tree is cut “on the quarter” which means a triangular wedge is cut with
its apex at the center of the tree and its two long sides equal radii of
the trunk. Alternatively, wood for a violin can be cut “on the slab”
which means a section of the trunk is cut that is not a radius of the circle
and doesn’t pass through the centre of the tree.
The 1690 ‘ex-Leopold Auer’ Stradivari shows an excellent example
of maple cut on the slab. The figure is iridescent and lively but slightly
less pronounced and more mottled and irregular. Stradivari used slab-cut
maple extensively in the 1680s and 90s as had the Amatis, Guarneris and
Rugeris before him, but his instruments from the 18th century more typically
use maple cut on the quarter.
Commentary by Jason Price
BD: Talking about this concert with Grace Moore,
did you feel that you were completely prepared, or were you being thrown
out into the arena?
Ilmer: No, no, I didn’t have the feeling like
I was thrown out into the arena. I really felt prepared.
A youngster feels confident and adequate, and I would have been ten times
more nervous now! [Both laugh] When you’re inexperienced,
you don’t feel the pressure. Now, it’s harder.
BD: The concert came off all right?
Ilmer: Yes, I did very well, and felt pretty good
about it. I got some very good press notices [one of which is
shown in the box below].
BD: Was Zelzer pleased?
Ilmer: Yes, he was very pleased.
BD: Was Grace pleased?
Ilmer: She didn’t pay too much attention to me.
I was just an upstart! [Both laugh] I didn’t see much of her
back stage. But after that, I launched into various orchestra positions,
starting with the Civic Orchestra here in Chicago, and Indianapolis Symphony
which, after three seasons, I went into the Service. After the
War, I played in the Grant Park Orchestra. I was assistant concertmaster
sitting with Fritz Siegal, who just passed away recently.
|Fritz Siegal was born in Vienna in 1917 to parents
of Russian and Czechoslovakian background. They immigrated to the United
States in 1922 and settled in Chicago. He attended Lane Technical High
School. Later, he served as concertmaster of Lyric Opera of Chicago
from the mid-1950s until 1966, Grant Park from 1945-1969, the Boston Pops,
and retired from the Pittsburgh Symphony at age seventy to teach violin,
having been concertmaster for 22 years beginning in 1967. Besides leading
the first violin section, he often served as assistant to the conductor.
Partly his ability to serve in more than one orchestra was because
Grant Park played only in the summer, and the Lyric and Pittsburgh seasons
were at other times of the year.
His first professional job was with the Illinois Symphony, and the
Stevens College Symphony. He played with the Chicago Symphony on the
Carnation Milk Radio Program, Percy Faith conducting, and became
concertmaster for the Seattle Symphony in 1939. After the birth of two
children he returned to Chicago to play for NBC Television Orchestra,
and later with the Indianapolis Symphony, CBS Orchestra and Baltimore
Symphony from 1943 to 1954.
He died in February of 1989 of liver cancer.
Then I went to San Antonio as concertmaster for a couple of seasons.
I was interested in orchestral playing, in as much as I could get concertmaster-type
positions where you had more of a chance to play some solos, and concertos,
and chamber music, which I did there for a couple of seasons. Then
I decided to come back home and raise a family. The most logical
thing seemed to be to join the Chicago Symphony, which in those days was
much easier to get into. Those were the days of Désiré
Defauw and then Raphael Kubelik. Before all of that I went
on a South American tour under Leopold Stokowski with an all-American
youth orchestra. That was a really great experience.
BD: How long did you stay with the Chicago Symphony?
Ilmer: Six years [1946-52]. I left to join
the Fine Arts Quartet, and at that time I changed instruments to the
viola. So, after all those years I wound up on the viola anyway!
I played the viola for eleven years with them, and I hardly ever touched
the violin until about the tenth year. That was when I suddenly
realized with a shock how much I missed it.
BD: I would think that a quartet would want an
experienced violist, rather than an experienced violinist who was then
moving to the larger instrument.
Ilmer: They knew that I had had much experience
in chamber music. Chamber music was my very basic interest, and
the orchestra positions were really for the bucks. That was the
bread and butter, and I had organized various groups. We knew each
other, and they knew my experience. They must have felt that it
would work out well, which it did.
BD: Did it take long to get familiar with the
larger position in the left hand?
Ilmer: That’s not much of a problem, really.
I don’t know the exact time, but the idea of switching now is becoming
quite commonplace. On programs that I’m on I’ve tried to feature
both instruments. I have this Solo Partita for Violin and Viola
which George Perle wrote
for me. I asked him to write something where I would switch back
and forth, so he wrote me an unaccompanied solo partita in five movements,
in which I had to switch between each of the movements back and forth.
I have played it, but on its first performance in New York or Boston,
it was done by two people who stood on the stage and alternated movements!
[Knowing the paucity of players who could perform well on both
instruments, Perle did specify that it was for one or two players.]
* * *
BD: When did you start teaching?
Ilmer: We did some coaching for three seasons when
I was in the Fine Arts Quartet. We were at Northwestern University
as artists-in-residence on a part-time basis. There was a little
bit of private teaching, but mostly it was chamber music coaching.
After I left the Fine Arts, I got the position at Indiana University,
which was mostly teaching with some chamber music coaching. Also
part of the time I joined the resident quartet, the Berkshire String Quartet.
BD: Why did you leave the Fine Arts Quartet?
[Vis-à-vis the program shown at left, see my interviews with
Roque Cordero, and Juan A. Orrego-Salas.]
Ilmer: One of the main reasons was that I just
missed the violin so much. I really did. It’s hard to explain
those things logically. I took the position of second violinist
in the Berkshire Quartet, which was an interesting challenge, because after
all those years as playing viola in a quartet, even though it wasn’t the
first violin part, the second violin was interesting to me. Actually,
I played the inner voices in quartets between the viola and the second
violin for about seventeen years.
BD: Is it gratifying knowing that you’re the
support inside, even though you don’t get the glory of the main line
all the time?
Ilmer: It is. It has its own special pleasures,
but now I’m trying to concentrate on playing first violin when I can.
Ironically, last season I played with the string quartet of Governors
State University [in University Park, Illinois, thirty miles south of Chicago],
and I was back on the viola again. [Much laughter] I really
liked the group, and they were very committed as a group. I enjoyed
it very much, even though I was on viola. I just felt though that after
one season, at this stage in my life there were too many personal things
I wanted to get done, and there wasn’t enough time for everything.
I was very sorry to leave.
BD: What advice do you have for younger chamber
music groups that want to get started?
Ilmer: There’s such a proliferation of quartets
these days, and many are good quartets, just like there are many good
string players. I would just say that as early as they can they should
get to know the literature as quickly as possible, and get to play as
much as possible. It would be much more gratifying to have a position
of teaching in combination with a chamber group, as compared to being in
an orchestra. In many major orchestras, there’s quite an active
chamber music program, which there was not when I was there. When
I was in the Chicago Symphony, I made my own experience in chamber music
by forming a quartet, partly of Symphony members and partly of outside
people, and we put on our own shows. But it was certainly not with
any co-operation or help from the Symphony. It’s quite a different
BD: So, you were really more of a ground-breaker
by getting some of these chamber groups started within the Symphony.
Ilmer: Yes, I was I suppose, if you look at it that
way. It’s interesting that when I was a teenager, I began to break
away from the idea of being a solo artist. Even if one has good
qualifications, I saw the difficulties and the slim chance one has of being
a really active solo artist. Actually, I was more interested in
the communication aspects of chamber music than I was in what I considered
the more egotistical expression of the concerto, and a solo career.
Even though I met with some cynical responses from some people who were
very active in practicing chamber groups, I didn’t get discouraged. But
I could have gotten so because they really were not very encouraging. At
that time, of course, in the 1940s it was much, much more difficult.
It’s true there was hardly any competition as compared to now. There
were hardly any opportunities. You had two or three big quartets.
This is long before LP records.
BD: I’m glad you brought this up. Do you
feel that the advent of the long playing record has made more opportunities
and more interest for both the performers and the concert-going public?
Ilmer: Oh, there’s no question about it.
The opportunity now to get acquainted with all aspects of any composer’s
output is just mind-blowing when you compare it with what it was in the
BD: Is there any chance that the avalanche
of recorded material is getting to be too much?
Ilmer: [Laughs] We’re all ‘avalanched’
not only with classical music, but with everything that’s available on
the electronic media. It sometimes blows my mind to think of the choices
I have to make between TV and FM radio, and records and tapes. One
has to make countless choices that didn’t exist when I was a youngster.
It just is a completely different situation.
BD: Is there any hope?
Ilmer: Oh yes, I’m sure! It’s a very healthy
thing. It’s much healthier to have more available, and to have
people learn to develop tastes and to know what they want. It’s wonderful
to have so much available. I’m still getting used to the idea!
[Both laugh] It’s just tremendous.
BD: Is there any chance that we’re turning out
too many young performers?
Ilmer: I sometimes think that there’s a real problem.
When I see the amount of really talented youngsters they turn out at Indiana,
and some other schools, there can’t be enough jobs that are available where
they could make a fairly decent living. I really have my doubts as
to the healthiness of the situation. It would be interesting to know
the percentage of graduates of one of the big schools, like Indiana, who
wind up with fairly good positions in music. What is much more available
is the public-school music, which has much more opportunity, so it’s
a large group. I’m thinking of the large number of those who graduated
with a so-called ‘performing certificate’,
which really doesn’t mean much, but at that level more of them are very
BD: What about competitions? Are those the
way to go for young performers to go?
Ilmer: I have very negative idea about competitions.
It’s a bad way for a youngster to get any kind of recognition.
Maybe it’s inevitable because there is so much competition that they have
to be weeded out some way, but I see it as a cruel process. I wish
there was some alternative, because at the outset you start to make comparisons.
I have judged enough competitions to see how frustrating it can be, unless
there’s one person who is just so obviously head and shoulders above the
BD: When you’re judging a competition, what is
it that you look for, or listen for?
Ilmer: There are a number of main things that one
looks and listens for. It’s a little hard to say abstractly, but
frankly I don’t welcome the opportunity too much to be a judge.
* * *
BD: In concert music, there must be an artistic
side and an entertainment side. Where’s the balance?
Ilmer: That’s an interesting question, and it’s something
I wanted to get to. As I’ve grown older, I’ve
become more interested in the religious or the spiritual side of communicating
in the arts, which in my case is classical music. Though, not only
classical music, but some good folk music and some jazz. I feel
that the communication is something which is vital, and yet I find myself
more and more impatient with the idea of arts as just entertainment.
What the arts have to give is basically communication about the human
situation, and the human situation is one which goes so much deeper than
just being entertained. I’m finding that I’m becoming more spiritually
attuned to certain composers, for instance, Beethoven. Even as
a youngster, I always have been attuned to the values and the music which
really shows the composers on a spiritual development which teach us, and
are really learning experiences. It interesting that I’m becoming
involved in a program in the Unitarian Church, in which my wife and I
are members. We’re planning a program on the spiritual development
of Beethoven. I’ve been through this some years ago where I traced
it through the music, and the development of the music, and his spiritual
expression throughout his change of styles. I’m not experienced in
giving talks on this sort of thing. I’m not a musicologist, but I
find this a real challenge because it’s not just a matter of musicality.
To me, it’s a matter of some very significant human values, and I find Beethoven,
especially, the complete inspiration in terms of overcoming universal human
problems, which so many of us have in the course of our lives. We
all know that the worst thing that could happen to a composer was that he
would become deaf, and maybe because of that we learn how he surmounted this,
and really wrote. Ironically, he wrote his greatest and most profound
music as a result of resolving the conflict and the frustration of ‘why
me’. It’s difficult to talk about all this because
it’s an experiential thing which has to be learned through the music.
I find it a real challenge to try to tackle this, so it’s
going to be interesting.
BD: [Knowing that he had participated in the performance
and recording of many of the Beethoven String Quartets] You’ve
made a number of records. Do you play differently in the recording
studio than you do on the concert platform?
Ilmer: No, not too much differently. On the
concert platform you’re really more concerned with the balance as perceived
by different parts of the hall, and if the hall is good acoustically or
not. Whereas when you’re recording, you test things carefully and you
know that you can play comfortably. You don’t have to worry about
the balance because you’re positioned with mikes, and you do everything
under control boards so that it works for you. Sometimes the acoustics
of a hall can work against you in some way, especially when you’re the
BD: On a recording are you more free to concentrate
strictly on the musical values?
Ilmer: Hopefully you should be, yes.
BD: Do these come through the plastic? [Vis-a-vis
the recording shown at left, see my interviews with John Verrall, and George Walker.]
Ilmer: You hope so. [Both laugh] I can
see Glenn Gould’s point about giving up concert playing, and just recording.
The audience gives their reaction to the performer, so the mutual
relationship is lacking. Objectively, though, there’s a relationship
between the audience out there, which is represented by the tape-recorder,
which, after all, is people. There’s a time-lag, but you know that
everyone’s going to hear it exactly the same way, in the same acoustic
conditions, and with the same perspective. You have much more control,
much better control of the situation.
BD: Is there ever a chance that the cut-and-splice
makes it too perfect?
Ilmer: Maybe it can be more perfect in the sense
of a specific time-relationship in front of an audience. It is
true that you feel that when you have a little flaw it does get magnified
because it’s going to be played over and over again. It’s more obvious,
and that is a problem with recording. But at least if you record
with as little pressure as possible, you can fix those things. It’s
more important that those things be fixed because they are going to preserved,
whereas in a one-time performance, everybody, including the performer, actually
forgets what happened when it comes to flaws.
BD: When you listen to a broadcast tape of that performance
ten or twenty years later, is the experience different from what you felt
at the performance?
Ilmer: I’m sure it is. It’s got to be.
After a long period of time I’ve heard some of my tapes repeatedly,
and I listen to them freshly. I don’t remember too much about certain
things of the performance. Maybe that isn’t good...
BD: Throughout the years, you’ve been quite
a champion of new music. Are there great compositions being written
today for string instruments in general and violins specifically?
Ilmer: If you’re talking about twentieth century
pieces, I personally think that Bartók’s are. Some people
think that Shostakovich’s are, but I don’t quite agree. As wonderful
as they are, and as much as I like Shostakovich, I don’t quite agree that
they’re on the same par. But they are wonderful! As far as
a lot of the experimental and way-out stuff that’s being written, as you
get older you get more conservative, and I haven’t been in touch with
some of the more contemporary styles and ways of going. Some of them
I find very intriguing when I listen to some of them, and some of them
I get quite impatient with. The minimalists I find rather hard to
take, and some people either like it or hate it. But in terms of what’s
being written for solo violin or viola, there are a lot of different styles.
There are certainly opportunities to play them a lot more than there
were in the old days. When I was a youngster in Chicago, we organized
a little contemporary group called the Chicago New Music Group. This
was way before the days of Ralph Shapey and the Contemporary
Chamber Players — which I was with for
two seasons, by the way. Principally there were George Perle and Ben
Weber, and we did quite a bit of their music. We also pushed hard for
doing local composers. At that time we were going in the direction
of the Viennese twelve-tone school of Schoenberg, and we played other composers
of twelve-tone music, even from South America and other places because we
were basically interested in that direction. We did some Bartók,
which was new in those days. We were pioneering the First Quartet
of Schoenberg, which was very difficult because there was no recording easily
available. It was difficult to have a concept of it. We were
relatively inexperienced and young, so that was quite a challenge. It
was quite difficult, but we plowed our way through it.
BD: Let me ask you a philosophical question. What’s
the purpose of music?
Ilmer: The arts in general, and music in particular
express attitudes and feelings in the non-verbal area, just like color and
shape and texture do in the visual arts. Music gives an intensity and
mental state that can be expressed through sound. This all has to
do with the right side of the brain. It’s a tremendously significant
human attribute to express and communicate these things on that level.
The purpose is to communicate humanity’s condition
— that we’re all in this together, and we
have the same strengths and the same weaknesses and the same feelings. There’s
always comfort in knowing you’re not alone. Many other people are
in your situation. Knowing that you’re not so unique, you don’t feel
so alone, and that’s already a great help. It’s good to know that
there are universal truths that can be expressed and communicated.
This is essential to keep our sanity as human beings.
BD: Very well put. Music is a great comfort
to us all. Thank you for all the music, and for this conversation.
It was great to see you again after all these years.
Ilmer: Thank you. I’m
glad you have had success with your career.
© 1989 Bruce Duffie
This conversation was recorded at Ilmers home in Evanston, Illinois,
on April 4, 1989. Portions were broadcast on WNIB two weeks later,
and again in September
of that year, as well as 1994 and 1999. This transcription
was made in 2022, and posted on
this website at that time. My
thanks to British soprano Una Barry for her
help in preparing this website presentation.
To see a full list (with links) of interviews which have been transcribed
and posted on this
website, click here.
To read my thoughts on editing these interviews for print, as
well as a few other interesting observations, click here.
* * * *
Bruce Duffie was with WNIB, Classical
97 in Chicago from 1975 until
its final moment as a classical station in
February of 2001. His interviews have also appeared
in various magazines and journals since 1980, and
he now continues his broadcast series on WNUR-FM, as
well as on Contemporary
Classical Internet Radio.
You are invited to
visit his website for
more information about his work, including
selected transcripts of other interviews, plus
a full list
of his guests. He would also like to call your attention
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