Conductor Marek Janowski
Two Conversations with Bruce Duffie
|Born in 1939 in Warsaw and educated
in Germany, Marek Janowski’s artistic path led him from Assistant positions
in Aachen, Cologne, Düsseldorf and Hamburg to his appointment as General
Music Director in Freiburg im Breisgau (1973-75) and Dortmund (1975-79). Whilst
in Dortmund, his reputation grew rapidly and he was invited to conduct in
many of Europe’s leading opera houses. There is not one world-renowned opera
house where he has not been a regular guest since the late 1970s, from the
Metropolitan Opera New York to the Bayerischer Staatsoper Munich; from Chicago
and San Francisco to Hamburg; from Vienna and Berlin to Paris.
Marek Janowski stepped back from the opera scene in the 1990s in order
to concentrate on the great German symphonic repertoire. He now enjoys an
outstanding reputation amongst the premier orchestras of Europe and North
America and is recognised for his ability to create orchestras of international
standing as well as for his interpretation of the core German repertoire.
Between 1984 and 2000, as Musical Director of the Orchestre Philharmonique
de Radio France, Marek Janowski took the orchestra to a position of pre-eminence
in France, as well as abroad. From 1986 to 1990, in addition to his position
in France, Janowski held the title of Chief Conductor of the Gürzenich-Orchester
in Cologne and between 1997 and 1999, he was also First Guest Conductor of
the Deutsche Symphonie-Orchester Berlin. From 2000 to 2005 Janowski served
as Music Director of the Orchestre Philharmonique de Monte-Carlo, and from
2001 to 2003 he also held the position of Chief Conductor with the Dresdner
Marek Janowski has made many recordings over the past 30 years, including
many complete operas and symphonic cycles, many of which have been awarded
international prizes. To this day, his recording of Richard Wagner’s complete
tetralogy the Ring Cycle with the Staatskapelle Dresden (1980-83) remains
one of the most distinguished and musically interesting recordings that has
been made of this work. His recent Bruckner cycle with the Orchestre de la
Suisse Romande, recorded for Pentatone has also been accorded high praise.
Contained on this webpage are two interviews with Marek Janowski.
Both were held in Chicago while he was conducting at Lyric Opera. The
first one was done in October of 1980, on the day before the first performance
of the new production of Lohengrin,
and centered on Wagner. The second took place a year later, and was
mostly about Richard Strauss.
Material from the first interview was published in two issues of Wagner News early in 1981, and portions
of each interview were aired several times on WNIB, Classical 97 in Chicago.
This presentation contains both of the entire conversations.
Being a very articulate man, I have left many of his interesting choices
of words and some of the Germanic style structures he used. Though helping
him slightly here and there, this transcript accurately reflects the thoughts
and enthusiasm which Janowski poured out during our meetings.
I'm going to give myself a picture of Chicago in the next days following
the first performance. The rehearsal period is very hard work because
it's much less time than in Germany for such a production. The rehearsals
have to be very dense.
How much time do you have here?
MJ: It's more
or less just a fortnight or so. The German system is quite different
from here, of course. The whole thing would take at least four weeks
or so. But German theaters have performances each evening, so it's
completely different from here.
BD: How about
the advance preparations?
MJ: That's very
good. Both groups – chorus
and orchestra – made
a big impression. Very professional attitude, very cooperative, very
disciplined. It was a joy to work with them. Really.
BD: So all the
preparation is done before opening night. Is there any more rehearsal
or touch-up after the show has opened?
MJ: No, normally
not. It can happen when one of the principal artists gets sick, but
there is nothing planned. It is not necessary.
BD: Do you have
much call to replace a singer because of illness or other indisposition?
I hope not. It depends on such a lot of things. Just in the last
days here in Chicago, it's sunny but it's getting colder. We had a few
days last week when it was very cold and such changing of temperatures is
a big problem for the singers, of course. Touch wood [taps table] nothing
at Lyric Opera of Chicago
1980 - Lohengrin - with
Johns, Marton, Martin, Roar, Sotin, Monk; Oswald (dir
1981 - Ariadne auf Naxos - with
Meier/Rysanek, Johns, Schmidt/Minton, Welting, Gordon, Negrini; Neugebauer (dir),
1984 - Frau ohne Schatten - with
Marton, Johns, Zschau,
Nimsgern, Dunn, Doss; Corsaro (dir), Chase (sets)
1985-86 - Miestersinger - with
Kuebler, Kavrakos, Del
O'Hearn (sets), Tallchief
1996-97 - Zauberflöte - with
Lopardo, Norberg-Schultz, Bär, Kodalli, Selig/Moll, Siena/Cangelosi; Everding (dir), Zimmermann
-- Names which are links, both
in this box and in the text below, refer to my interviews elsewhere on this
BD: Tell us a
little about Lohengrin. Is
this the first Wagner that you've conducted?
MJ: No, no.
It's not the first Wagner that I've conducted. This Lohengrin is my fourth or fifth new production
of this piece. I have conducted it often, but new productions this year
have included one in Orange in southern France with Everding at the open-air
theater with 14,000 people.
BD: How is the
balance in a place with 14,000 people?
MJ: It's one
of the real acoustic miracles of Western Europe. It's an amphitheater,
and you can listen even in the last row upstairs to one violin playing pianissimo. The acoustic circumstances
are really fantastic!
BD: How are the
acoustics on the stage for the singers? Can they hear the orchestra?
MJ: It's not
easy, but if you get used to this circumstance it works quite well.
The distances are terrible.
BD: I would think
that in a regular house, where the voice comes back to the singer, they'd
be more confident.
MJ: There it
doesn't come back, but in a very strange way you get used to it. Everding
tried to stage the Swan Chorus – a very difficult
part for the chorus in the first act where Lohengrin appears –
by dividing them into two groups just standing in front of one
another at a distance of maybe 80-100 meters. We thought that would
be impossible, that it could not work acoustically together, but it worked
BD: The back
chorus didn't have to anticipate the beat?
It was OK. Then I've done Lohengrin
quite a few other times, so I've developed experience with the difficulties
of the piece. Apart from the Dutchman,
which I've only done occasionally, I've done all of the Wagner operas quite
often in the last years.
BD: Even the
MJ: Yes, even
the Ring lots of times, and I'm
going to record the Ring in the
next four years with the Staatskappelle Dresden. This will be the first
digital Ring recording, starting
with Rheingold, and during the next
three and a half years the rest. I've done Parsifal, and I've done Tristan, Tannhäuser...
BD: Can you reveal
a few details about the Ring or is
it a closely guarded secret?
MJ: No, it's
known to the Western European public. The cast will be Theo Adam as
the Wotans, Schreier
will be Loge and the Siegfried Mime,
and Kollo as both Siegfrieds. Hagen is not yet cast because it will
be recorded until '83, and you must first be very careful about casting
that role too soon because of vocal development that you wouldn't like.
Brünnhilde with be Jeannine Altmeyer – her first.
She is coming to this role.
BD: I had an
impression of Altmeyer as being lighter – more an
MJ: No, no.
In the last two years she's changed in lots of aspects. She was supposed
to sing in this current season her first Isolde at Stuttgart but she didn't
want to do it. She and Eva Marton possibly will be, in a few years,
the two ‘solutions’ to this role.
Marton is also thinking about the whole thing very cautiously, very carefully,
but I think she will be one of the possibilities also. But Altmeyer
has decided to accept this Ring.
BD: For the recording
MJ: Always after
the recordings there will be a concert performance with the cast in Dresden.
Sieglinde will be Jessye Norman, which I think is a marvelous solution vocally,
and Alberich will be Nimsgern. Rheinmaidens will be Lucia Popp, Hanna
Schwarz, and a young unknown singer from East Germany, so the whole cast could
be really something.
BD: It sounds
exciting. Is there a difference in preparing operas for recordings
and for the stage?
it should not be. When you make artistic considerations concerning
general views of interpretation of the piece, it should not. But then
when you know which very specific problems are connected with a recording,
you should have an idea or you should have a second view on the piece that's
not so much concerned with a production as an opera, but with certain details
about appealings of voices to a tape or not. Then the whole thing gets
a second aspect, which is different from the aspect of interpretation.
That needs a certain experience in operatic recordings. I don't know
if I have enough, but I've done some recordings and that's perhaps a help.
The whole thing is a tremendous task, a very big general problem.
BD: Do you find
MJ: Sometimes yes, sometimes no. I hope it
will be satisfying in the way we are planning this recording of the Ring. There are some problems not
solved yet in digital recording concerning edits. Cutting and putting
a tape together the normal way is not possible, so for this production we
have worked out another system of producing it, and I hope it will work.
With the complete technical recording machines at work, I will do quite a
lot of orchestral rehearsals before the sessions. So during these rehearsals
we can find out any balance problems. Apart from a few places, there
are no problems with ensemble singing – only the Rheinmaidens,
the Valkeries, and the chorus in Götterdämmerung.
Otherwise you can put the voice on the balanced orchestra. There is
only one person singing, so the balance can be set up this way.
BD: Will you
be laying down an orchestral ‘track’ and adding the
MJ: No, no!
We will be preparing the
full orchestra to a nearly perfect standard concerning the tape with the orchestra.
Then we propose that we should produce in one session of 3 to 3 1/2 hours
about half hour of music. One run-through, perhaps a second one correcting
some things, and a third one and that's it. Not the way of recording
in small pieces of 2 minutes or so and putting it together and praying to
God that it works, but having larger parts in the way of more going through
it. I hope very much that this will be a big help to keep the thing
BD: More or less
performing an entire scene?
MJ: More or less,
BD: That should
work better for the singers and for the orchestra.
MJ: We hope so.
BD: There will
be the recording, then a concert. How will that concert differ from
MJ: It will not
differ at all. It's the same cast of course. Perhaps in the three
larger operas there might be just a day of rest or so before the concert,
then just a concert of the piece that has just been recorded.
to the world your full conception?
MJ: Ja, ja, more or less.
BD: Just a hypothetical
question. Suppose that someone goes to the performance, then later buys
the record and says that it's not the same at all?
MJ: Well, I don't
know . . .
BD: What I'm
asking is, how much of the recording is controlled by the engineers and the
producer, and how much say-so do you have?
MJ: A difficult
question; difficult to answer. I hope that this way of taping
– by doing more or less scenes in a session –
it should be and will be as close as possible to a straight-through performance.
I hope that very much. I can't guarantee it, but hope it will be very
BD: What is the
future of operatic recording(s)? If there is a perfect performance of
a work, do you think it sets up an impossible standard to achieve in the opera
MJ: That's the
danger; that's the problem. In Europe and in America there is one basic
misunderstanding of what a recording should be. There is a terrible
mixing up of an artificial product to put it in competition with a live going-on
BD: They should
be two separate things?
MJ: I think so.
My personal opinion is that even the most perfect recording cannot give you
– and should not give you – that what you
get when you are in an audience with 1,000 or 2,000 other living people observing
a living and going-on performance, and not sitting isolated at home with
your quadro and stereo machines and just one point in the room where it is
acoustically perfect. It's never in a normal performance; there is
no place that is acoustic perfection. You have a surrogate, an artificial
surrogate of a thing that's not alive. Of course recordings have done
a lot, brought a lot of really marvelous development to musical things.
Orchestras have improved fantastically since recordings exist. We have
a tremendous development of precision and control.
BD: So we strive
even more toward this perfection?
can be a bad word, but not always. It is generally a bad word.
It's something, perfection. In my opinion, recordings should be a means
of informing people about a piece. It is not a piece. I don't
want to say a ‘live’ performance, but a living performance sometimes can
be a piece. For me, personally, a recording never can be a piece.
BD: It loses
something being stamped in plastic?
MJ: Oh, ja! I think so. It's really
terrible that living artists are playing against our recordings. Our
recordings are threatening ourselves, and it's sometimes not very easy to
get around with this. There are some artists who are super-perfect in
recording and much less perfect in doing things live. The young people
who listen – the ‘fans’ – don't
really realize how different these two levels of bringing music to people
BD: Two completely
MJ: Yes, I think
BD: And they should
MJ: Oh yes, nothing
BD: What about
taking the recordings one step farther and putting an opera on film?
Does this bring it closer to the real thing, or is it still a plastic non-living
MJ: I think also
a film is not essentially living theater. It's the photography of living
theatre. It's very close to it, like a good photo of your face is very
very close to your face and can show you something that's behind your skin,
but it is not your face. But just as recordings do, films of opera could
bring thoughts and thousands of people closer to that which we call operatic
music. It makes it more popular, more ‘democratic’
– that's a mis-used word often.
More universally accepted?
No longer belonging only to the upper classes. It could always be a
help to bring people closer to it, but listening to a real going-on performance
at a distance of 50-100 meters or so is a completely different thing.
* * *
BD: How would
you go about bringing Wagner to someone who has never heard an opera or never
heard a Wagner opera before? What kind of advice would you give?
MJ: If he is
interested in music but not having heard Wagner, I would tell him very much
not to get his first contact with things like Meistersinger or Tristan or Parsifal or the Ring pieces. I would tell him to
observe the line that starts with middle or later Beethoven – Fidelio – across
Carl Maria von Weber – Freischutz and Euyranthe...
BD: Not Oberon?
– not concerning the quality but only the way of the development
that leads to Wagner. Then try to get a connection either to Tannhäuser, Holländer or Lohengrin. These are early or middle
pieces, depending on how many sections you put on Wagner's life. The
Dutchman perhaps as a revolutionary
piece is slightly left apart. You can find a more earlier ‘German’
style in the Tannhäuser and
more Italian, French (Meyerbeer) way of handling the voices in Lohengrin. Of course the very popular
themes in it could give a certain appeal to these pieces to an interested
new music listener.
BD: It's a way
MJ: Yes, that's
it. But Wagner has presented an orchestral-musical presentation of what
he thinks a miracle should be in Lohengrin.
It's fantastic; the Prelude to Act I,
for instance, or other places where Lohengrin appears. The divided
high violins is a fantastic thing. When a person has gotten more or
less familiar with this style, then I would tell him to try listening to
Meistersinger, or try Tristan – but that's
a masterpiece and it's difficult to hear really. Well, Meistersinger perhaps, or Walküre. That could be the
BD: So you're
saying to come to it gradually?
MJ: That way,
BD: Then you're
really urging people to come to Wagner the way Wagner came to himself!
MJ: I would say
so, yes. It's very evident and very important that people who are interested
in this sort of music should know Wagner's roots. The better ones are
Beethoven, whom he admired tremendously, and Weber whose pieces he knew very
well. Euryanthe is just the
same subject as Lohengrin, and musically
the bad couple – Friedrich and Ortrud – has
its model in Euryanthe, and Wagner
knew it very well. The things that were important for Wagner were in
the French/Meyerbeer line, and the other line is Beethoven/Weber, helping
Wagner to find his style.
is certainly more grandiose.
MJ: Ja, ja! And these two lines come together
somewhere between Rienzi and Lohengrin. He found himself by being
concerned with these two lines. I can't say more than ‘concerned’.
BD: Is there
any antecedent from Bellini? I know Wagner worked with Norma.
MJ: As you know
he admired it very much. I've said Meyerbeer line, but that is very
general. If you insist on asking me on Bellini, I think there are lots
of parts in Lohengrin that demonstrate
not the virtuoso line of Bellini lines, but the more deeply lyric line.
There are parts of the great Norma/Adalgisa duet that are very close to the
Lohengrin Bridal Chamber Scene
– not in the musical theme and not in the basic musical attitude,
but in the leading vocal line.
BD: What about
the early works of Wagner – do they have a place in
the modern repertoire?
MJ: I wouldn't
BD: If you were
asked to conduct Feen or Liebesverbot, would you?
MJ: I was just
asked to do a concert performance of Liebesverbot
in Berlin in 1984, and I wouldn't. I would with a very good cast, and
I have done Rienzi in a concert performance
but not onstage. There are some places in Rienzi which really show what would come
or could come. The overture and some scenes are fantastic. Not
very skillful handling of the orchestration, but it shows something that would
come in Tannhäuser and Lohengrin, but not at all in the way
of the later pieces. There is a real transformation in Wagner's style
completely after Lohengrin.
BD: Is there
any point in finishing up Die Hochzeit,
or would that just be a curiosity?
MJ: I would say
BD: How much
influence on you as a conductor are the prose writings, the polemical writings
MJ: There is
some importance in a historical or semi-philosophical view. It can
or could describe a personality that was never at peace with itself
– always thinking and trying to change his mind on some problems.
I know what's behind your question and I want to be very careful especially
for those who study the prose works, not to mix them up with what he wrote
later. It's a very difficult question and I'm very cautious.
BD: It seems
to me that Wagner contradicts himself occasionally -- especially by the time
you get to Parsifal.
Not only musical aspects but in philosophical and general artistic aspects,
he's one of the most sparkling figures of the whole western cultural history.
BD: Do you regard
him as a giant?
MJ: Yes, in a
way, yes, I do so. In Parsifal,
lots of places in the Ring.
The Tristan third act, for me,
belongs to the ten most important musical events we've had in the last 300
BD: Do you find
this kind of depth in any other composer?
MJ: In other
ways, of course. Mozart's Don Giovanni
is far away from Wagner, but concerning depth there are some places in Così Fan Tutte, and in a more popular
way of depth in the Magic Flute.
Very close to Wagner are some parts of Fidelio
and the 9th Symphony that's very
close to it. Perhaps in only talking about stage music, it's in Monteverdi.
BD: Do you think
there's a place for Monteverdi in today's repertoire?
MJ: I think so,
but about Gluck, to be honest, I'm doubting.
BD: You'd replace
Gluck with Monteverdi?
MJ: That's a
very personal opinion.
BD: Do you think
Monteverdi can be done in the larger houses such as Chicago?
I wouldn't. You can; you can arrange it but I wouldn't tell people
to do it in such a theater.
BD: But if they
approached you with a workable idea, you might participate?
BD: If you were
doing a Monteverdi work, would you try to get ‘authentic’
instruments, or would you use modern ones?
I would say the authentic ones have a good aspect to show it as has been done
hundreds of years ago, but, for instance, we don't play Beethoven sonatas
on a hammerklavier at this time.
there's a recording of one.
MJ: Of course
sometimes it is done, but generally we play Mozart piano concertos on normal
instruments and we do the St. Matthew Passion
in big halls. The circumstances of these older centuries is very different;
the rooms were much smaller and the whole thing was not so big as we do them
today. The approach of doing everything very originally is OK in that
it demonstrates something to you, but it's not at all sacrilegious to do a
masterpiece in the instrumental surroundings of your time.
BD: You feel
Monteverdi would approve of using modern instruments and modern stage techniques?
MJ: Yes, yes.
I think so.
BD: What about
versions – for instance right now in Chicago we have
Boris in the original version.
Would you prefer doing that kind of thing or the Rimski edition or the Shostakovich
MJ: That's a
very personal question. I know all three versions. I would think
that now one should not do the Rimsky-Korsakov version. I wouldn't,
but to answer it very personally I would say I prefer doing the Shostakovich
version because he was slightly more skillful in handling the orchestra.
It is very, very close to the original thoughts that come out of the original
score, but were not handled so skillfully by Mussorgsky.
BD: Is there
a place in the opera house or the concert hall for performance of works by
question. There should be, but they are not often done. But first
you must define a bit more clearly what you mean by ‘minor’
BD: When you
do twenty works in a season, you can't do twenty masterpieces. You
must do works that have not remained in the repertoire and perhaps new works
that may fail. If an opera house asked you to do an opera by a composer
that you don't think is very good, would you do it, or would you say, “No,
I would rather do something else?”
MJ: Oh no, no.
If in my personal opinion I would think, “Well, it's
not my special cup of tea,” but it's not really a bad
work, one should give it a chance once again to come before the public.
As history teaches us sometimes, you remember that for a hundred years, nothing
was heard of the works of Bach. Then when Mendelssohn gave him a new
chance, we discovered what it was. One should be very careful in saying,
“No, I never world . . . ”
BD: Do you think
there are some masterpieces lurking on the shelves someplace?
MJ: That should
be done but very rarely? I think Weber's Oberon and Euryanthe, for instance. For me
personally, the early Verdi is not worth being done, but that is a personal
view. There are all the pieces from the early part of this twentieth
century – not Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern
– but Schrecker, Korngold, and such.
BD: These should
MJ: I think so,
to give them a new chance.
BD: What about
new works – world premieres? And also, where do
you think opera is going?
MJ: To answer
honestly, I don't know. [Pauses a moment to think] I know Ligeti
pieces and Krzysztof
Penderecki, but to be truthful, I am dubious about what is coming in
this special kind of arts.
BD: Just in opera,
or in symphonic works also?
MJ: In symphonic
works it's perhaps easier, but in opera there are lots of pieces that are
going to be written and going to be performed, but the question is what would
remain for twenty or thirty or fifty years or so. I'm slightly pessimistic,
but I would be happy if in ten years I could tell you I failed in saying what
I've just said!
BD: You don't see any
other giant on the horizon?
MJ: I think a
very important person is Lutosławski, a very important one. I think
Ligeti without a doubt a very, very important man.
BD: Have you
done some of his works?
MJ: Not his stage
works, but his concert pieces. To know how Ligeti's development will
go, one has to wait for it to happen. Those are two... perhaps one or
two of the younger Polish generation will become known...
BD: You mentioned
Penderecki. Did you see his Paradise
Lost which had its world premiere here in Chicago?
MJ: Yes, in Munich.
BD: Did you enjoy
BD: Was it done
I would be very interested in the development of Penderecki. You know
I have conducted the recording of the Devils
of Loudun! So I know his different style – very
precise very clear. [In the recording
shown at right, the central role of Jeanne is sung by Tatiana Troyanos.]
BD: Is there
any relationship between the Devils
and Paradise Lost?
None at all.
BD: Is it almost
as though it were from the pen of two different composers?
MJ: That I wouldn't
say, but it's a complete changing of style. Perhaps not a complete changing
of musical attitude in its widest sense, but I don't know where this leads
to, or to what end this changing will come.
BD: What about
chamber works – is there a place today for chamber operas
and smaller works? As we've said, everything today is so big...
MJ: Well, a ‘place
for’ or a ‘public for’ are two different
questions! It's difficult to answer. There should be a place for
them, and the possibility of having places and small publics should be fought
BD: Is there
anything in music right now that you're unhappy with – performance
styles or trends in composition or something else?
MJ: It may be
a contradiction, but I would say I really have some anxiety concerning that
mound of mechanical perfection that we have achieved in producing of musical
works – not just the recordings, but the performing.
I fear we are not far away from a standard of perfection that brings to us
a certain real collapse of spontaneity and the human aspect of music.
Perhaps I am wrong...
BD: Are we becoming
MJ: We would
never become machines, but we appreciate machines too much, and what is philosophically
behind machines. I hope this development comes to an end someday.
BD: Where should
we go instead?
MJ: This point
is what makes me doubtful of the development of our whole musical culture
– losing the living aspects of this art.
BD: Are we perhaps
rounding out an era? Might we need to go to something completely new
that has no relation to what we have been doing?
MJ: Let us arrange
another meeting in twenty years to continue this discussion! [Both laugh]
* * *
BD: Coming back
to Wagner once more, people seem to be very passionate either one way or the
other about him in a way that is unique. No other composer seems to
elicit this fierce devotion either for or against.
MJ: It's true.
You cannot take a middle ground. It's always either enthusiastic “Yes!”
or terrible “No!” with nothing in between. That
develops a lot of fanatic attitudes which is always dangerous.
BD: But we find
this in no other composer – not even Mozart. Mozart
certainly was a giant...
MJ: Yes, but
in a way we call ‘divine’. I would hesitate in
calling Wagner a divine giant.
BD: Is he a mad
MJ: No, not mad,
but divine means ‘God-like’, and Wagner is less and
BD: Can you account
for this? Is it because of what Wagner was, or because of what we think
MJ: Not in Lohengrin
or Tannhäuser so much, but the
two most important philosophical things in human life he brought into music
– love and power. It's involved in the second half of the
last century in philosophy concerned with Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, but
these two things could touch all people, more or less, or could reach them.
In a miraculous way he brought these into the music; not into the words that
he used, but into the music itself. His Wotan and Alberich portrayals
really demonstrate what musical power can be.
BD: Are Wotan
and Alberich two sides of the same coin?
MJ: [Thinks a
moment] You have asked this and I've never thought about it, but it
couldn't be completely wrong what you said. Perhaps... [Musing
on these ideas] The aspect of power... the aspect of love in the second
act of Tristan going to the third
act, and the first act of Walküre,
and even love and power in the second act of Parsifal...
BD: Can they
come together – love and power?
I don't think they can come really together, but they can be pointed out
in one scene.
BD: But they
will still be two distinct entities?
MJ: I would think
BD: Can one person
have both love and power?
What do you think? I don't know.
BD: I don't know
either... I'll write these down for our conversation twenty years from
BD: It's fascinating.
With no other composer can we get this kind of depth.
MJ: You're right.
And it's fascinating – all the other composers, the
fellow composers and later ones all knew it! They knew it! You
know how Verdi admired Wagner.
BD: Did they
know they were going to be overshadowed?
BD: Is that why
we are, at times, afraid of Wagner – because he swamps
MJ: Partly it
could be. Perhaps.
BD: It's the
kind of discussion that can go on infinitely, and often does so in the Wagner
Society. It must be broken off to be picked up again at another time,
and broken off again for there is no solution.
MJ: But that's
the later Wagner – not so much the Lohengrin and Tannhäuser, but more the later works,
though Lohengrin in some places shows
something of the later ideas. The mystic aspects of Lohengrin are kinds of examples which
point the way to Wagner's musical future.
BD: If Wagner
had not written anything after Lohengrin
– due to his early death, perhaps – where
would his place be in the firmament of operatic composers? Would he
be just another Weber?
but very famous, that's for sure. Lohengrin is a very popular thing, as
is Tannhäuser, and in a way
Holländer also. He would
be a very popular, very famous composer, but not at all this man who is the
reason for the Wagner Society debates. There would be no debate, or
BD: Just another
BD: Can you project
anything beyond Parsifal
– if he had lived another 10 years or so and had written another
MJ: Can you project
another piece after the Magic Flute
if Mozart would have been alive?
BD: I'd love
to have more from either of these two composers!
Some people die physically when perhaps there's nothing to come. I can't
imagine something behind Parsifal
BD: He knew this
was his last work?
MJ: Oh no, but
it appeared to be that way, and it was not wrong. Of course it's a real
pity that Mozart died at thirty-six.
BD: Is it my
greed to want more from Mozart and more from Wagner?
BD: When Verdi
was writing, he seemed to project a finality with Aïda, and later came up with Otello and Fastaff, both master-strokes.
MJ: Ja, perhaps, as he himself thought, his
only masterpieces. Verdi was very important for operatic development
and for developing a musical-dramatic aspect to bring into music, particularly
some scenes in Rigoletto and Traviata, and also Ballo in Maschera; parts of these, but
not the whole things. But I'm not a great admirer of Aïda. It has a marvelous third
and fourth act, but for me, one and two are too...
Not the scenery, but yes, ‘showy’ would be right.
But I agree with you that the other two, Otello and Falstaff, are tremendous masterpieces.
But in Germany at least, Falstaff
is never popular. We have The Merry
Wives of Windsor by Nicolai, with very touching music, very elegant
music. It's a nice piece, of course, but this piece beats the masterwork
of Verdi very much. Falstaff
has not a chance in Germany.
BD: I have periods
of sadness when I lament the fact that Verdi never composed his King Lear.
BD: If he could
have done Otello, then Lear, then Falstaff...
MJ: Right, I
agree. Verdi recognized that he couldn't do it. Not for weakness, but
he couldn't face this Shakespearian attitude. That's something.
He was involved in it, but he felt he was not capable of doing it.
That closes the door on it.
BD: Have you
seen Lear by Reimann?
Not bad at all. Perhaps that is one opera which could have a chance.
I appreciate your taking the time to discuss all of this today.
MJ: It was a
BD: I hope you
will come back to Chicago.
MJ: If there
is something interesting. Then we can continue . . . . . . . . .
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One year later, Janowski was back in Chicago for Ariadne auf Naxos. While setting
up for the second conversation, we chatted about his following appearance
in Chicago (three years hence, in 1984) which would be Die Frau ohne Schatten. I mentioned
that I had been waiting for a long time to see this work in the theater, and
was particularly looking forward to seeing it . . . . . . . .
MJ: It’s well
worth the wait, without any question. The second act of Die Frau ohne Schatten is the best act
Strauss has ever written, even taking into account the different
parts and the different periods of his slightly changed style of composing
where he has reached such depth in his musical inventions. It’s always
all over the earlier pieces – not only in opera but
in the orchestra pieces until the last ones – this tremendous
capability of just having found a musical idea then transforming it in all
these different ways – motive, abbreviation, prolongation,
things like that. He’s the most experienced man in this
– and this is not a real criticism on Strauss – but as a matter
of fact, sometimes there’s certain lack of depth in it. It’s so superficial,
so brilliant in all the handling of the ideas and the really dramatic things
on stage that one sometimes would like to have the same amount of depths in
the musical thought. It’s like this to me and to a lot of experienced
Strauss conductors too. But in Frau
ohne Schatten, particularly in the second act, there is his real heart
written in it. It is tremendously orchestrated and it’s great.
The problem is that it’s too philosophical in the basic thoughts that made
it, until the last fifteen or twenty years, even in Western Europe, impossible
for that piece to get a real popular success. This wall doesn’t exist
anymore. It’s a big hit.
BD: Has the wall
gone, or have we gone over the wall?
MJ: [Pause for
a moment] I think we have gone over the wall. I would say that.
BD: It’s us,
the public, that has grown?
Does the rest of the opera approach the level of the second act?
MJ: Let me explain that from our normal estimated
point of view of our West European experience with Strauss. I
have my doubts about it, but it is said that the third act should be slightly
weaker. They all say it, but I doubt it. The whole hymn-like
finale is perhaps a bit too, as we say, standing with both feet on the earth!
But there are things before in the third act which are really great music,
without any question. The first act possibly doesn’t have the same stringent
attack, because to many things have to be explained. The first act
is about sixty or sixty-five minutes, but it takes forty minutes not to explain
but to try to explain the
background of the whole thing! The last scene of the first act, for
instance, when Barak comes back with the guards watching the town at the
end of it, is great without any question.
BD: The technical
demands of this work are also huge.
MJ: In every
and any aspect really. Not stage directing, but arranging
a stage for that piece means really the whole technical possibilities of
a bigger opera house are needed.
BD: Have you
seen the production at the Met? They use the stage elevators and everything.
I did it in Dortmund, and it was really an incredible task each performance
for the technical people to get the thing all done with these elevators up
and down and under the stage. So it’s very difficult, really.
BD: Is the technical
facility backstage here in Chicago good enough?
MJ: I don’t know,
but if they want to do it, they have to do it and to find a way. As
a matter of fact, the technical staff, the people who do their job there,
are very, very good and very clever, very fast in solving problems and things
like that. The rehearsal situation with the orchestra will not be so
easy. Either you do it with a planned possibility to bring the whole
thing to a really first-class performance, or you shouldn’t dare it.
But of course that’s not the question. If there would be enough rehearsals
for the orchestra, they would do it very well, but it’s just the amount of
extra time for the unusual things.
BD: By that time
the orchestra will have played Rosenkavalier,
Ariadne, several Wagner pieces,
etc. Will all of this help in the orchestra’s development of grasping
MJ: Yes and no.
The orchestra here is really experienced. It is very tricky in handling
Italian style, and they do that very well. When they are well rehearsed,
then they can play very well, but the Strauss and Wagner style in general
is not so close to the general American orchestra’s attitude of playing.
What we have with the best European orchestras is the combination of a tremendous
demand of precision with a certain relaxed attitude to that precision, and
they don’t have here yet. They want to make it very precise and they
wish to push a thing just in the right direction.
BD: So with a
bit more experience they’ll become more relaxed?
MJ: That’s it.
Ariadne nowadays is extraordinary
example for this. They have played all the performances really very,
very good without any question. They have done a marvelous opening night,
and were very precise in every small detail. That was very, very good.
They worked hard and with patience, and rehearsed with a lot of energy and
had a fine result. We have now just had the fifth performance and it’s
always growing. They regard me and with each performance I am conducting
them less, less, less. It makes it more risky for them to play, and
that leads now, after a couple of performances when they know what the other
people are doing around them – which for such a chamber
music piece is very important – they are much more relaxed. At the
last two performances – last Saturday and Tuesday – they come closer and
closer to that way of being not to terribly precise. You know what I
mean? It has to remain precise but a bit... [pauses to think a
BD: So it’s not
MJ: That’s it!
The tradition here is much more concerned about and with Italian opera.
If they would do during each year at least two productions of German opera,
they would possibly build this up. For Mrs. Fox, very much the first,
the most important thing has been the Italian opera style. If it changes
a bit like this, it would help very much to improve the basic preparation
for German opera.
BD: Do you see
the repertoire being a little more adventurous now under Ardis Krainik?
MJ: Could be.
I hope very much that the two papers here of the town, with their official
comments on repertoire and how to build up a season, would encourage her very
much to take these steps now. That could be possible.
BD: Is the Lyric
in a position to do things like Lulu?
[Lyric would present its first production of Lulu during the 1987-88 season with Catherine Malfitano,
Jacque Trussel, Victor
Braun, and Evelyn Lear
as Countess Geschwitz (!), conducted by Dennis Russell Davies.]
MJ: Without any
question, without any question.
BD: I just wonder
if the public in Chicago ready for Lulu?
MJ: Well, let’s
come back again to Ariadne, which,
apart from Munich and even in Vienna, as we say, is not a box-office thriller,
and has its problems. It’s a big success here. The people who
come really like it. They love it.
BD: We’ve had
Rosenkavalier twice, and it did
very well both times. We’ve had Salome and Elektra, of course, and now
you’re looking at Frau ohne Schatten.
What are some of the other Strauss works that should be done here?
MJ: If you’ve
had Salome and Elektra, and if you’ve had Rosenkavalier for the second time, the
next step is precisely right in trying to get something like Frau ohne Schatten. I agree to you
without any question that should be the next step. It should not be
Arabella, which is much weaker than
Rosenkavalier and very close stylistic
to it. Then if you have done Frau
ohne Schatten, you should really risk one of the very late things
BD: Like Die
MJ: You should
come to this later. We are not talking about comedy pieces, just important
pieces of Strauss. Think about Daphne
and Capriccio, these two things.
It’s very demanding for the public but they are both great pieces.
BD: If you were
to do Capriccio, would you say that
it should be done in English?
MJ: Yes, I would
say so, and I would say so also to the comedy part of Strauss’s operas.
You should do a Schweigsame Frau
in English. With such a girl as Ruth Welting, for instance, she must
BD: She’d make
a great Aminta!
BD: Where do
we find a bass for Sir Morosus?
MJ: That could
be very difficult, it could be really very difficult. For it to be first-class,
around Europe it’s only Kurt Moll and Matti Salminen who do it.
BD: Who is on
MJ: Theo Adam.
He wouldn’t do it anymore now. These three are really the leading people.
There might be others... Could be from the quality of the voice, I don’t know.
I must find out about that; the type I can judge, but I like the quality
of the voice of your American Paul Plishka. He
is a great bass with a wonderful warm timbre, but I have no idea how he is
as a comedian really.
BD: You need
a comedian but you can’t just pluck out any old Don Pasquale.
MJ: Nichts, nichts! It’s a real, very,
very heavy vocal role. It needs a first-class bass and no ‘comic-buffo’,
or something like that. You’d need to have voice really.
BD: So you’re
making a distinction between a comedian and a buffo?
MJ: Yes, in the
aspect of Fach. A buffo very
often is the bass with a small, weaker voice.
BD: Coming back
to this problem of doing things in English, why was the decision made not
to do the Prologue of Ariadne in
English here in Chicago?
MJ: As a matter
of fact, I think it hadn’t been really discussed. When I signed this
contract, it was just last year when I was here in Lohengrin. There were all these
troubles fixing the season and talking about the cast and that’s it.
Then the change in the management came, and the casting was more or less really
done. While I was in Europe I thought about that, and with most of
the cast it would not have been a problem. If I would do it abroad again
somewhere, I really would try to talk with the management very early about
making the Prologue in the local language. It would mean, though, that
you lose some of these beautiful untranslatable things that have Hofmannsthal-style
rhythm, which can exist only in German, of course. You cannot really
do it well. I’ve thought about that and it would be very tricky.
It would be a real loss of high-developed German literature. It’s
very special and very uncommon, even to Germans. The duet of Zerbinetta
and the Composer at the end of the Vorspiel
is just an artificial play with words that you cannot understand as a foreigner.
BD: I was talking
to Timothy Nolan [who was singing the role of Harlequin] and he said he was
going into a production where the Prologue was going to be in English, and
also in the comedians’ parts of the opera. Do
you think that’s too much?
MJ: Let me just
think about it. [Thinks for a moment] No, that wouldn’t do.
How do you feel about the original version of Ariadne? Does it stand up as a piece
MJ: No, no, no,
no. They try it from time to time in Germany, but it’s always a flop.
Who could sing that Zerbinetta then? The whole thing is one tone higher
and the work itself is ten minutes longer.
BD: They did
a concert performance with the Boston Symphony for Beverly Sills a number
of years ago. Erich Leinsdorf
Well, okay yes.
BD: So it then
becomes sort of an occasional piece for a star soprano?
MJ: Yes, I would
* * *
BD: I assume
you have done Salome and Elektra?
BD: I have this
impossible dream of seeing a double-bill of those two together. Am I
MJ: [Very long
pause to think] Not from the question of time for the evening.
BD: But from
the question of intensity?
MJ: It’s the
intensity, or better to say the tension of both pieces could be possibly
BD: Would you
ever get involved in a production where you did something else with Salome, like Gianni Schicchi or something similar?
MJ: That I wouldn’t
do. You could think about a real contrast along a double-bill evening.
For instance, Bluebeard of Bartók.
It just takes an hour or so and is a mystery. But if you do Elektra, without any question that must
be the second piece of that performance, and that could possibly kill all
the Bluebeard in your mind.
BD: So really
they should just stand alone?
MJ: Yes, that’d
be better. Daphne is just the
same thing. It is one hour-forty.
BD: When you
do Capriccio, do you do it in one
piece or two.
MJ: It depends.
Very often the management are the people who want it to be performed.
As a connoisseur of that piece, I would always prefer to do it without a break.
As a matter of fact, it’s the truth that Strauss wanted the break.
When it could be first performed were the War years, and it was always dangerous
to keep people very long in the night in the theatre. That’s the real
reason. Very few people know that. I know that from the first
stage ‘chef’ of Capriccio, Rudolf
Hartmann, who did all these Strauss first performances. It’s the truth
about that, not having a break in the score was to shorten the whole for
half an hour to let the people get home earlier. It’s this reason,
BD: So then it’s
two and a half hours, and they go home?
MJ: That’s it.
I’ve done it without break and I’ve done it with break. With break is
much more relaxing for the people, the normal people. It’s basically
a without-break piece. It’s very demanding, but Rheingold is the same thing. It’s
two-twenty and people stay there also without a break.
BD: I guess the
people who go to Rheingold are used
to sitting through Wagner performances. They think of Götterdämmerung and Parsifal, whereas the Strauss people are
more accustomed to even the longest being Rosenkavalier. When you do Rosenkavalier, do you put any cuts in
it at all?
MJ: There are
lots of so-called traditional cuts, and all these vocal things have to be
handled with care really. I’m very careful in making Rosenkavalier cuts. I wouldn’t like
at all the cuts around the final scene of the second act. I would very
much prefer to have all this uncut. You have to have some cuts
in the third act without any question, really for dramatic reasons.
But I never do all the so-called traditional and sometimes very provincial
cuts that they have. It would be interesting to have it really once
without any cuts, but that would demonstrate some weaker points in the third
act – not from Strauss but from Hofmannsthal.
BD: Let me ask
about Die Liebe der Danae.
Where does that fit into the canon? It was taken up to the dress rehearsal
in ’44, so it really dates from that period, even though it didn’t get a premiere
MJ: Yes, that
is right. Until now I’ve never conducted it, but I’m going to conduct
it in a concert performance next February in Paris with the Orchestre National.
It’s the first performance in France at all of that piece. It
has weaker parts in it, and then it’s got some splendid things. It’s
not really scheduled now, but we possibly could record the whole thing in
’83 in Berlin. It’s just been talked about for a very long time, really
years ago. It was an idea of EMI, who are nowadays in terrible financial
problems. When you record such pieces as Schweigsame Frau and Capriccio, that’s not a sure bet to sell.
It is a must for all the ‘knowing people’ but you can’t really earn money
with it. They hesitated for a very long time, and I think it’s just
in these months they are coming back to that idea to do that. It would
be possibly done in Berlin in the early summer of ’83 with the Berlin Symphony
BD: Concert performance
and the recording altogether?
MJ: Of course,
BD: Is there
any point ever in doing Friedenstag
MJ: Well, could
be, but not me. That’s not my cup of tea!
BD: What about
the very early ones?
MJ: Feuersnot? No. I don’t
know Guntram, only excerpts of it,
but I know Feuersnot. It shows
the footsteps to develop his experience in how to handle an operatic idea.
BD: One other
piece of Strauss has always fascinated me – Des Esels Schatten (The Donkey’s
Shadow). Do you know that work at all?
MJ: No, I don’t
know it. There are quite a number of things that Strauss has written
for vocal with piano which are really never done.
BD: Oh, like
Enoch Arden. There is a recording
of that with Claude Rains and Glenn Gould.
MJ: Yes, indeed,
yes, which is very strange. There’re lots of undiscovered things.
BD: The Chicago
Symphony Chorus did Tageszeiten
MJ: Yes, was
BD: Yes, it was
a nice piece I thought. Strauss is fascinating. Did he live too
long? Did he live beyond his imagination?
You can say yes, but I love Strauss. I feel very close to him.
I admire the general handling of the orchestral material in his early days
and in his last days really. In such things as Metamorphosen for the twenty-three string
players or the Oboe Concerto, all
the last pieces and the Four Last Songs
demonstrate for me that he didn’t live too long.
One of the early pieces that I love is the Serenade in Eb.
MJ: Very nice
BD: I played
contrabassoon in that one time, and it’s just marvelous.
it’s marvelous. The Serenade is a
very good piece, incredibly, fantastically written piece. The Metamorphosen is a piece of half an hour
or so, written as a result of when he saw Munich destroyed. That was
the reason for writing it. At the end of the Second World War, he saw
the broken opera house and all the important buildings destroyed by the War.
He was so depressed so he wrote this piece. It’s not a thing for just
normal music lovers. There’s so much depth in it and so much experience
and skillfulness in handling the counterpoint. It’s great music, it’s
BD: What is the
relationship of the tone poems to the operas?
MJ: [Thinks for
a moment] It’s dangerous to say, but I really think all the world’s
successes of Don Juan and Till Eulenspiegel were only preparation.
Opera was his job, you know. The best parts of the tone poems were very
talented preparation to what’s coming with the operas.
* * *
BD: How’s your
Ring coming along?
MJ: Walküre was done in Dresden just
before I came here, and Rheingold
has been released here. Walküre
is going to be released some month early autumn next year or so. We
will start Siegfried in February
and March of next year.
Is the recording going the way you had planned?
MJ: Touch wood
[knocks on the table] exactly. Until now it has gone exactly as it was
planned, really. Everything on time, no cancellation, no sick singer
and all these things that could happen. Nothing like this until now
but we will wait and see! We’ve done two pieces from four but
in quantity, we’ve done, let’s say a third of it now.
From your point of view as the conductor, is it working out the way you
want it? Have the recordings been made the way you envisioned?
MJ: Yes, although
it’s very hard for the conductor, that way of performing. I would really
appreciate to record only and forever under such circumstances – doing all
the orchestral rehearsals in the recording studio, never another place, always
there. The whole technique is with the rehearsals. We just rehearse
this or that, and then I have them tape it. Then there’s taken lot of
time after the rehearsals just to discuss the different things and then adjusting
things with the orchestra in the next rehearsal. It’s all prepared
for the technical side, and that’s a tremendous help, without any question.
For instance, in the final duet of Act I of Walküre, from when Sieglinde re-enters
the stage it’s twenty-two minutes. We have rehearsed it with the orchestra
and we have rehearsed it with the singers – a rehearsal, not a tape recording
– for some balance things for the technicians for about an hour
or so. Then we had a break and I discussed it with the two singers.
After the break I told the orchestra to correct a few things in balance, and
then we did it. One run through [hitting the table with joy] and that’s
on the tape. There’s no correction, nothing! You have
to be lucky of course. It can happen that there is one or other thing you
have to correct, but there was nothing to correct. That was it.
Here is another example. We did the Fricka scene of the second act
with Minton and Adam. The whole thing is twenty-five minutes or so,
which is not so difficult for the orchestra as the finale of Act One.
For that I had with her a piano rehearsal in the afternoon. It was
an evening session, and of course again it was prepared with the orchestra.
We rehearsed some things – transitions –
then we did it once through. There was something to correct
and we had the break, and after the break we did a second version, and that
was it. After the second version we corrected one note only.
It was fabulous, fantastic really, but it cannot always be like that.
BD: Were you
lucky with the opening of the third act, with all of the Valkyries?
MJ: We knew which
sort of problems there would be for the technical people, so we arranged this.
We had all these girls who were all very well prepared. It was going
to be recorded on a Saturday, and we really planned for it two sessions
– which is very much for such a thing, but with all the acoustic
problems with eight voices, it’s ooooooooooooooooh, it’s very...
BD: It is as
many voices at one time as you have in the whole thing except for the chorus
MJ: Yes, and
my assistant coached them all together on the Friday afternoon for a couple
of hours to make all the musical things, the lengths of the notes
right. Then I worked with them again with piano in the studio.
The whole time during this piano rehearsal they were placed on the stands
where they had to sing it later in order to find the right balance of the
voices. So the technique really trained with this rehearsal their abilities
and possibilities. On the technical side, we found that one engineer
couldn’t really do it.
BD: Did he run
out of fingers to use on the control board?
MJ: It’s too
much, so they made a real co-production of that. The engineer of the
East German firm, who did the whole thing normally and the producer of the
West German firm was a very experienced engineer also, both stood like organ
players on the console. They learned that, and we had a very short
morning session. Not three hours, not at all, and then we said it’s
better to relax and we would do it in the evening. There was just one
run through and it was finished!
BD: That was
MJ: Yes, yes!
[Both laugh] We have been very, very careful with that in planning the
right circumstances, and that worked out, yes.
BD: I hope that
the rest of the cycle gets done in single takes!
MJ: [With a broad
smile] Well, no one could predict this, but it was for me a really exciting
experience. We really fight for sticking to this way of preparing the
orchestra and having all the technical possibilities around you. This
is a very good way of producing it. This is so important because these
pieces are so long. You could sub-divide the thing into many shorter
takes, but it could happen that you lose the contact with the stringendo of the whole thing. If
we do the Danae, I will insist on
having the same situation.
BD: What other recordings are in the planning
MJ: Danae is probably the next one after the
Ring. There is some discussion
of doing with the Royal Philharmonic in Liverpool a whole disc of Korngold
things that have not yet been recorded. I have done his Violanta, and they are thinking of very
much about his late works like the Symphony
in F#. There exists also a very, very tricky piano concerto.
BD: Will you
do Der Ring des Polykrates?
MJ: There’s no
opera nowadays in the talks.
BD: Did you enjoy
MJ: Yes, very
BD: You worked
well with George Korngold?
BD: Did he have
any suggestions for you about the music?
MJ: He always
tells me things for the interpretation of the pieces, yes. He had the
one or another suggestion to bring into it because in Germany he liked the
way that it was done, but he remembered the one or another place his father
had said, “That’s more important. Watch out for this
or that.” But he’s a nice man and he’s always
trying to push me to do some other of his father’s pieces.
BD: Will you
record a disc of his films scores?
MJ: Er, no.
I didn’t know all of them, but not really. The F# Symphony was a very, very difficult
and really good piece; very modern; not really contemporary but not that late
romanticism of Tote Stadt or Violanta. It was written much later.
BD: Do you think
these works – Tote Stadt and Violanta – could
be done on the stage today successfully?
MJ: Tote Stadt without any question would
be a big success, but it really depends on stage directors. If there’s
a good staging, I cannot imagine that it is not a success. Violanta, I think no.
MJ: The basic
dramatic display is very weak. It’s just an opportunity to show two
singers who are in very good command of their voice.
BD: Is it a more
introverted drama, or is there no drama there?
MJ: No, it’s
not introverted, it’s just cheap. It’s a cheap, new verismo blood and
love story. That’s it! Remember, it was composed by a seventeen
year old boy.
BD: Thank you
so very much for talking with me again. It was a great pleasure.
MJ: And for me
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© 1980 & 1981 Bruce Duffie
The first conversation was recorded at the studios of WNIB, Chicago,
on October 9, 1980. The second conversation was recorded at Janowski's
apartment in Chicago on October 29, 1981. Portions of both were broadcast
on WNIB in 1989, 1990, 1994 and 1999. The Wagner sections of the first
conversation were transcribed and published in Wagner News in the issues of January and
March of 1981. The transcript of that first interview was completed
and re-edited in 2014, along with a transcript of the second interview, and
it was all posted on this website at that time.
To see a full list (with links) of interviews which have been transcribed
and posted on this website, click here.
winning broadcaster Bruce Duffie was with WNIB, Classical
97 in Chicago from 1975 until its final moment
as a classical station in February of 2001. His
interviews have also appeared in various magazines and journals
since 1980, and he now continues his broadcast series on WNUR-FM.
invited to visit his website
for more information about his work, including
selected transcripts of other interviews, plus a full
list of his guests. He would also like to call your
attention to the photos and information about his grandfather,
who was a pioneer in the automotive field more than a century ago.
You may also send him E-Mail
with comments, questions and suggestions.